Никел

28
Ni
Група
10
Периода
4
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
28
28
31
Општи Својства
Атомски број
28
Атомска тежина
58,6934
Mass Number
59
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the German word Nickel (Satan), and from kupfernickel, Old Nick's copper
Кристална структура
Face Centered Cubic
History
Artifacts made from metallic meteorites have been found dating from as early as 5000 BC.

In 1751, Baron Axel Fredrik Cronstedt was trying to extract copper from kupfernickel and instead produced the white metal.

In the early twentieth century, Ludwig Mond patented a process using nickel carbonyl to purify nickel.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 16, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 3d8 4s2
Ni
Nickel is 100 times more concentrated below Earth's crust than in it
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
8,912 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1728,15 K | 1455 °C | 2651 °F
Точка на вриење
3186,15 K | 2913 °C | 5275,4 °F
Топлина на топење
17,2 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
378 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,444 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0089%
Abundance in Universe
0,006%
A
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
A sheet of nickel
CAS Number
7440-02-0
PubChem CID Number
935
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
124 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
124 pm
Електронегативност
1,91 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
7,6398 eV
Atomic Volume
6,59 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,907 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Nickel is used extensively to make coins and nickel steel for armor plates and burglar-proof vaults.

Tubing made of copper-nickel alloy is extensively used in making desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water.

Nickel is also used in batteries, ceramics and magnets.
Nickel and its compounds are considered to be carcinogenic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni
Unstable Isotopes
48Ni, 49Ni, 50Ni, 51Ni, 52Ni, 53Ni, 54Ni, 55Ni, 56Ni, 57Ni, 59Ni, 63Ni, 65Ni, 66Ni, 67Ni, 68Ni, 69Ni, 70Ni, 71Ni, 72Ni, 73Ni, 74Ni, 75Ni, 76Ni, 77Ni, 78Ni