Рубидиум

37
Rb
Група
1
Периода
5
блок
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
37
37
48
Општи Својства
Атомски број
37
Атомска тежина
85,4678
Mass Number
85
Category
Алкален метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word rubidus, deepest red
Кристална структура
Body Centered Cubic
History
German chemists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff discovered rubidium in 1861 by the newly developed method of flame spectroscopy.

The separation of the metal was tried by Bunsen, but he never got samples with more than 18% of Rubidium.

The separation of the metal was only accomplished by George de Hevesy, through the hydrolysis of melted rubidium hydroxide.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 8, 1
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 5s1
Rb
Rubidium burns with a reddish-violet flame color
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
1,532 g/cm3
Точка на топење
312,46 K | 39,31 °C | 102,76 °F
Точка на вриење
961,15 K | 688 °C | 1270,4 °F
Топлина на топење
2,19 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
72 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,363 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,006%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Rubidium
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Dnn87)
Rubidium metal sample from the Dennis s.k collection
CAS Number
7440-17-7
PubChem CID Number
5357696
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
248 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
220 pm
Електронегативност
0,82 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
4,1771 eV
Atomic Volume
55,9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,582 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1
Applications
Rubidium is used as a getter in vacuum tubes and as a photocell component.

Rubidium compounds are sometimes used in fireworks to give them a purple color.

Rubidium salts are used in glasses and ceramics.

Rubidium-87 is slightly radioactive and has been used extensively in dating rocks.
Rubidium is not known to be toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
85Rb
Unstable Isotopes
71Rb, 72Rb, 73Rb, 74Rb, 75Rb, 76Rb, 77Rb, 78Rb, 79Rb, 80Rb, 81Rb, 82Rb, 83Rb, 84Rb, 86Rb, 87Rb, 88Rb, 89Rb, 90Rb, 91Rb, 92Rb, 93Rb, 94Rb, 95Rb, 96Rb, 97Rb, 98Rb, 99Rb, 100Rb, 101Rb, 102Rb