Рутениум

44
Ru
Група
8
Периода
5
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
44
44
57
Општи Својства
Атомски број
44
Атомска тежина
101,07
Mass Number
101
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word Ruthenia, Russia
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Jędrzej Śniadecki isolated the element in 1807, but his work was not ratified.

Jöns Berzelius and Gottfried Osann nearly discovered ruthenium in 1827.

In 1844, Karl Ernst Claus confirmed that there was a new element and isolated ruthenium from the platinum residues of the rouble production while he was working in Kazan University, Kazan.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 15, 1
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 4d7 5s1
Ru
Ruthenium is unaffected by air, water and acids
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
12,37 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2607,15 K | 2334 °C | 4233,2 °F
Точка на вриење
4423,15 K | 4150 °C | 7502 °F
Топлина на топење
25,7 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
580 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,238 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
9,9×10-8%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-7%
Gas
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Periodictableru)
Gas phase grown crystals of ruthenium metal
CAS Number
7440-18-8
PubChem CID Number
23950
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
134 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
146 pm
Електронегативност
2,2 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
7,3605 eV
Atomic Volume
8,3 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1,17 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts.

Ruthenium dioxide and lead and bismuth ruthenates are used in thick-film chip resistors.

Fountain pen nibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium.

Ruthenium is a versatile catalyst.
Ruthenium is a suspected carcinogen and its compounds strongly stain the skin
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru, 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru
Unstable Isotopes
87Ru, 88Ru, 89Ru, 90Ru, 91Ru, 92Ru, 93Ru, 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru, 105Ru, 106Ru, 107Ru, 108Ru, 109Ru, 110Ru, 111Ru, 112Ru, 113Ru, 114Ru, 115Ru, 116Ru, 117Ru, 118Ru, 119Ru, 120Ru