Паладиум

46
Pd
Група
10
Периода
5
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
46
46
60
Општи Својства
Атомски број
46
Атомска тежина
106,42
Mass Number
106
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
Palladium was named after the asteroid Pallas; Pallas was the Greek goddess of wisdom
Кристална структура
Face Centered Cubic
History
Palladium was discovered in 1803, in London, by English chemist William Hyde Wollaston.

He examined the residues left from platinum after dissolving it in aqua regia, a concentrated solution of hydrochloric and nitric acids.

He then isolated palladium in a series of chemical reactions.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 4d10
Pd
In the late 1800s, palladium was more expensive than platinum
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
12,02 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1828,05 K | 1554,9 °C | 2830,82 °F
Точка на вриење
3236,15 K | 2963 °C | 5365,4 °F
Топлина на топење
16,7 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
380 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,244 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
6,3×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Palladium
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Palladium crystal
CAS Number
7440-05-3
PubChem CID Number
23938
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
137 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
139 pm
Електронегативност
2,2 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
8,3369 eV
Atomic Volume
8,9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,718 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 4
Applications
The largest use of palladium is in catalytic converters in the automobile industry.

Finely divided palladium is a good catalyst and is used for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions.

The metal is used in dentistry, watch making, and in making surgical instruments and electrical contacts.
Palladium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, 110Pd
Unstable Isotopes
91Pd, 92Pd, 93Pd, 94Pd, 95Pd, 96Pd, 97Pd, 98Pd, 99Pd, 100Pd, 101Pd, 103Pd, 107Pd, 109Pd, 111Pd, 112Pd, 113Pd, 114Pd, 115Pd, 116Pd, 117Pd, 118Pd, 119Pd, 120Pd, 121Pd, 122Pd, 123Pd, 124Pd