Јод

53
I
Група
17
Периода
5
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
53
53
74
Општи Својства
Атомски број
53
Атомска тежина
126,90447
Mass Number
127
Category
Халогени
Color
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek word iodes, violet
Кристална структура
Base Centered Orthorhombic
History
Iodine was discovered by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811.

He treated the liquor obtained from the extraction of kelp, with sulfuric acid to produce a vapour with a violet color.

In 1812, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac demonstrated that iodine was an element and its chemical relationship to chlorine.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 7
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
I
Kelp was the main source of natural iodine in the 18th and 19th centuries
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
4,93 g/cm3
Точка на топење
386,85 K | 113,7 °C | 236,66 °F
Точка на вриење
457,4 K | 184,25 °C | 363,65 °F
Топлина на топење
7,76 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
20,9 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,214 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000049%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Pure crystalline iodine
CAS Number
7553-56-2
PubChem CID Number
807
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
140 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
139 pm
Електронегативност
2,66 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
10,4513 eV
Atomic Volume
25,74 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,00449 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 3, 5, 7
Applications
Iodine compounds are important in organic chemistry and very useful in medicine.

A solution containing potassium iodide and iodine in alcohol is used to disinfect external wounds.

Silver iodide is a major ingredient to traditional photographic film.

Iodine is added to table salt to prevent thyroid disease.
Elemental iodine is toxic if taken orally
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
127I
Unstable Isotopes
108I, 109I, 110I, 111I, 112I, 113I, 114I, 115I, 116I, 117I, 118I, 119I, 120I, 121I, 122I, 123I, 124I, 125I, 126I, 128I, 129I, 130I, 131I, 132I, 133I, 134I, 135I, 136I, 137I, 138I, 139I, 140I, 141I, 142I, 143I, 144I