Холмиум

67
Ho
Група
Нема одговор
Периода
6
блок
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
67
67
98
Општи Својства
Атомски број
67
Атомска тежина
164,93032
Mass Number
165
Category
Ланта­ноид
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word Holmia meaning Stockholm
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Holmium was discovered by Swiss chemists Marc Delafontaine and Jacques-Louis Soret in 1878.

They noticed the aberrant spectrographic absorption bands of the then-unknown element.

Later in 1878, Per Teodor Cleve independently discovered the element while he was working on erbia earth.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Xe] 4f11 6s2
Ho
Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally occurring element
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
8,795 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1734,15 K | 1461 °C | 2661,8 °F
Точка на вриење
2993,15 K | 2720 °C | 4928 °F
Топлина на топење
17 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
265 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,165 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00012%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-8%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure holmium
CAS Number
7440-60-0
PubChem CID Number
23988
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
176 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
192 pm
Електронегативност
1,23 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,0215 eV
Atomic Volume
18,7 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,162 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
3
Applications
Holmium is used to create the strongest artificially generated magnetic fields, when placed within high-strength magnets as a magnetic pole piece.

It is one of the colorants used for cubic zirconia and glass, providing yellow or red coloring.

Holmium isotopes are good neutron absorbers and are used in nuclear reactor control rods.
Holmium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
165Ho
Unstable Isotopes
140Ho, 141Ho, 142Ho, 143Ho, 144Ho, 145Ho, 146Ho, 147Ho, 148Ho, 149Ho, 150Ho, 151Ho, 152Ho, 153Ho, 154Ho, 155Ho, 156Ho, 157Ho, 158Ho, 159Ho, 160Ho, 161Ho, 162Ho, 163Ho, 164Ho, 166Ho, 167Ho, 168Ho, 169Ho, 170Ho, 171Ho, 172Ho, 173Ho, 174Ho, 175Ho