Тулиум

69
Tm
Група
Нема одговор
Периода
6
блок
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
69
69
100
Општи Својства
Атомски број
69
Атомска тежина
168,93421
Mass Number
169
Category
Ланта­ноид
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
Named after Thule, the earliest name for Scandinavia
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Thulium was discovered by Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve in 1879 by looking for impurities in the oxides of other rare earth elements.

The first researcher to obtain nearly pure thulium was Charles James, a British expatriate working on a large scale at New Hampshire College in Durham.

High-purity thulium oxide was first offered commercially in the late 1950s.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
Tm
Thulium ore occurs most commonly in China
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
9,321 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1818,15 K | 1545 °C | 2813 °F
Точка на вриење
2223,15 K | 1950 °C | 3542 °F
Топлина на топење
16,8 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
250 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,16 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,000045%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-8%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline thulium
CAS Number
7440-30-4
PubChem CID Number
23961
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
176 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
190 pm
Електронегативност
1,25 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,1843 eV
Atomic Volume
18,1 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,168 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3
Applications
Thulium is used to dope yttrium aluminum garnets used in lasers.

It has also been used in high-temperature superconductors similarly to yttrium.

Thulium has use in ferrites, ceramic magnetic materials that are used in microwave equipment.

Thulium is used in euro banknotes for its blue fluorescence under UV light to defeat counterfeiters.
Thulium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
169Tm
Unstable Isotopes
145Tm, 146Tm, 147Tm, 148Tm, 149Tm, 150Tm, 151Tm, 152Tm, 153Tm, 154Tm, 155Tm, 156Tm, 157Tm, 158Tm, 159Tm, 160Tm, 161Tm, 162Tm, 163Tm, 164Tm, 165Tm, 166Tm, 167Tm, 168Tm, 170Tm, 171Tm, 172Tm, 173Tm, 174Tm, 175Tm, 176Tm, 177Tm, 178Tm, 179Tm