Хафниум

72
Hf
Група
4
Периода
6
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
72
72
106
Општи Својства
Атомски број
72
Атомска тежина
178,49
Mass Number
178
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Gray
Radioactive
Не
From Hafinia, the Latin name for Copenhagen
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
In 1911, Georges Urbain claimed to have found the element in rare-earth residues which was shown later to be a mixture of already discovered lanthanides.

Dirk Coster and George de Hevesy found it by X-ray spectroscopic analysis in Norwegian zircon in 1922.

Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer were the first to prepare metallic hafnium by passing hafnium tetra-iodide vapor over a heated tungsten filament in 1924.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Hf
In powdered form, hafnium is pyrophoric and can ignite spontaneously in air
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
13,31 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2506,15 K | 2233 °C | 4051,4 °F
Точка на вриење
4876,15 K | 4603 °C | 8317,4 °F
Топлина на топење
25,5 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
630 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,144 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00033%
Abundance in Universe
7×10-8%
Electrolytic
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Electrolytic hafnium
CAS Number
7440-58-6
PubChem CID Number
23986
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
159 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
175 pm
Електронегативност
1,3 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,8251 eV
Atomic Volume
13,6 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,23 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3, 4
Applications
Hafnium oxide-based compounds are being introduced into silicon-based chips to produce smaller, more energy efficient and performance packed processors.

Most of the hafnium produced is used in the production of control rods for nuclear reactors.

Hafnium is also used in photographic flash bulbs, light bulb filaments, and in electronic equipment as cathodes and capacitors.
Hafnium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf
Unstable Isotopes
153Hf, 154Hf, 155Hf, 156Hf, 157Hf, 158Hf, 159Hf, 160Hf, 161Hf, 162Hf, 163Hf, 164Hf, 165Hf, 166Hf, 167Hf, 168Hf, 169Hf, 170Hf, 171Hf, 172Hf, 173Hf, 174Hf, 175Hf, 181Hf, 182Hf, 183Hf, 184Hf, 185Hf, 186Hf, 187Hf, 188Hf