Осмиум

76
Os
Група
8
Периода
6
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
76
76
114
Општи Својства
Атомски број
76
Атомска тежина
190,23
Mass Number
190
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek word osme, meaning smell
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Osmium was discovered in 1803 by English chemist Smithson Tennant in London.

Chemists who studied platinum dissolved it in aqua regia to create soluble salts and observed a small amount of a dark, insoluble residue.

Smithson Tennant analyzed the insoluble residue and concluded that it must contain a new metal.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Os
Osmium is the least abundant stable element in the Earth's crust
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
22,61 g/cm3
Точка на топење
3306,15 K | 3033 °C | 5491,4 °F
Точка на вриење
5285,15 K | 5012 °C | 9053,6 °F
Топлина на топење
31 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
630 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,13 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,8×10-7%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-7%
Osmium
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Osmium crystals produced by chemical transport reaction in chlorine gas
CAS Number
7440-04-2
PubChem CID Number
23937
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
135 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
144 pm
Електронегативност
2,2 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
8,4382 eV
Atomic Volume
8,49 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,876 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Applications
Osmium is used alloyed with other metals in the platinum group to produce very hard alloys.

Osmium alloys are used in the tips of fountain pens, instrument pivots, and electrical contacts

Osmium tetroxide has been used in fingerprint detection and in staining fatty tissue for optical and electron microscopy.
Even low concentrations in air can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os
Unstable Isotopes
161Os, 162Os, 163Os, 164Os, 165Os, 166Os, 167Os, 168Os, 169Os, 170Os, 171Os, 172Os, 173Os, 174Os, 175Os, 176Os, 177Os, 178Os, 179Os, 180Os, 181Os, 182Os, 183Os, 185Os, 186Os, 191Os, 193Os, 194Os, 195Os, 196Os