Кислород

8
O
Група
16
Периода
2
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
8
8
8
Општи Својства
Атомски број
8
Атомска тежина
15,9994
Mass Number
16
Category
Неметали
Color
Colorless
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek word oxys, acid, and genes, forming
Кристална структура
Base Centered Monoclinic
History
Carl Wilhelm Scheele obtained oxygen by heating mercuric oxide and nitrates in 1771, but did not publish his findings until 1777.

Joseph Priestley also prepared this new air by 1774.

The name oxygen was coined in 1777 by Antoine Lavoisier, whose experiments with oxygen helped to discredit the then-popular phlogiston theory of combustion and corrosion.
Electrons per shell
2, 6
Електронска конфигурација
[He] 2s2 2p4
O
Green and red colors in the Aurora Borealis are caused by oxygen atoms
Физички Својства
Фаза
Gas
Густина
0,001429 g/cm3
Точка на топење
54,36 K | -218,79 °C | -361,82 °F
Точка на вриење
90,2 K | -182,95 °C | -297,31 °F
Топлина на топење
0,222 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
3,41 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,918 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
46%
Abundance in Universe
1%
Vial
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Vial of glowing ultrapure oxygen
CAS Number
7782-44-7
PubChem CID Number
977
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
48 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
66 pm
Електронегативност
3,44 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
13,6181 eV
Atomic Volume
14,0 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,0002674 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, -1, 1, 2
Applications
Pure oxygen is frequently used to help breathing in patients with respiratory ailments.

Oxygen is used in oxyacetylene welding, as an oxidant for rocket fuel, and in methanol and ethylene oxide production.

It is also used in the production of steel, plastics and textiles.

Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration.
Oxygen gas can be toxic at elevated partial pressures, leading to convulsions and other health problems
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
16O, 17O, 18O
Unstable Isotopes
12O, 13O, 14O, 15O, 19O, 20O, 21O, 22O, 23O, 24O, 25O, 26O, 27O, 28O