Ториум

90
Th
Група
Нема одговор
Периода
7
блок
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
90
90
142
Општи Својства
Атомски број
90
Атомска тежина
232,03806
Mass Number
232
Category
Актиноид
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Да
Named after Thor, Scandinavian god of war
Кристална структура
Face Centered Cubic
History
Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1828, in Stockholm, Sweden.

Thorium was first observed to be radioactive in 1898, independently, by Polish-French physicist Marie Curie and German chemist Gerhard Carl Schmidt.

The crystal bar process was discovered by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925 to produce high-purity metallic thorium.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Rn] 6d2 7s2
Th
Thorium fuel research is continuing in several countries including the USA and India
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
11,7 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2115,15 K | 1842 °C | 3347,6 °F
Точка на вриење
5061,15 K | 4788 °C | 8650,4 °F
Топлина на топење
16 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
530 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,113 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0006%
Abundance in Universe
4×10-8%
The
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (NASA/ESA/JHU/R.Sankrit & W.Blair)
The Earth's thorium originated in the death throes of ancient stars
CAS Number
7440-29-1
PubChem CID Number
23960
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
179 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
206 pm
Електронегативност
1,3 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,3067 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,54 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
2, 3, 4
Applications
Thorium is used to coat tungsten filaments in light bulbs.

It is also used in its oxide form in gas tungsten arc welding to increase the high-temperature strength of tungsten electrodes and improve arc stability.

Thorium-magnesium alloys are used in the aerospace industry for aircraft engines.
Thorium is highly radioactive
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
232Th
Unstable Isotopes
209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th