Силициум

14
Si
Група
14
Периода
3
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
14
14
14
Општи Својства
Атомски број
14
Атомска тежина
28,0855
Mass Number
28
Category
Металоид
Color
Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word silex, silicis, flint
Кристална структура
Дијамантска коцкеста
History
In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy thought silica to be a compound and not an element; but in 1811, Gay Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard probably prepared impure amorphous silicon by heating potassium with silicon tetrafluoride.

In 1824 Jöns Jakob Berzelius prepared amorphous silicon by the same general method.

Henri Deville in 1854 first prepared crystalline silicon, the second allotropic form of the element.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 4
Електронска конфигурација
[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Si
Silicon also has the unusual property that it expands as it freezes
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
2,3296 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1687,15 K | 1414 °C | 2577,2 °F
Точка на вриење
3538,15 K | 3265 °C | 5909 °F
Топлина на топење
50,2 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
359 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,705 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
27%
Abundance in Universe
0,07%
Close
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Enricoros)
Close up photo of a piece of purified silicon
CAS Number
7440-21-3
PubChem CID Number
5461123
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
111 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
111 pm
Електронегативност
1,9 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
8,1517 eV
Atomic Volume
12,1 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1,48 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, -3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
In the form of sand and clay it is used to make concrete and brick; it is a useful refractory material for high-temperature work, and in the form of silicates it is used in making enamels, pottery, etc.

Silica, as sand, is a principal ingredient of glass.

Silicon chips are the basis of modern electronic and computing.

Silicon carbide, more commonly called carborundum is used in abrasives.
If breathed in as a fine silica/silicate dust, it may cause chronic respiratory problems
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
28Si, 29Si, 30Si
Unstable Isotopes
22Si, 23Si, 24Si, 25Si, 26Si, 27Si, 31Si, 32Si, 33Si, 34Si, 35Si, 36Si, 37Si, 38Si, 39Si, 40Si, 41Si, 42Si, 43Si, 44Si