Фосфор

15
P
Група
15
Периода
3
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
15
15
16
Општи Својства
Атомски број
15
Атомска тежина
30,973762
Mass Number
31
Category
Неметали
Color
Colorless
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek phosphoros, light bearing; ancient name for the planet Venus when appearing before sunrise
Кристална структура
Simple Triclinic
History
Hennig Brand discovered phosphorus in 1669, in Hamburg, Germany, preparing it from urine.

In 1769, Johan Gottlieb Gahn and Carl Wilhelm Scheele showed that calcium phosphate is found in bones, and they obtained elemental phosphorus from bone ash.

Antoine Lavoisier recognized phosphorus as an element in 1777.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 5
Електронска конфигурација
[Ne] 3s2 3p3
P
Elemental phosphorus exists in two major forms - white phosphorus and red phosphorus
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
1,82 g/cm3
Точка на топење
317,25 K | 44,1 °C | 111,38 °F
Точка на вриење
553 K | 279,85 °C | 535,73 °F
Топлина на топење
0,64 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
12,4 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,769 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,099%
Abundance in Universe
0,0007%
Red
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Red phosphorus as powder
CAS Number
7723-14-0
PubChem CID Number
5462309
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
98 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
107 pm
Електронегативност
2,19 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
10,4867 eV
Atomic Volume
17,0 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,00235 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-3, -2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Many fertilisers contain a high proportion of phosphorus and are manufactured from concentrated phosphoric acids.

Phosphorus is used in the manufacture of safety matches, pyrotechnics and incendiary shells.

Phosphorus is also used in steel manufacture and in the production of phosphor bronze.
White phosphorus is highly toxic while red phosphorus is considered non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
31P
Unstable Isotopes
24P, 25P, 26P, 27P, 28P, 29P, 30P, 32P, 33P, 34P, 35P, 36P, 37P, 38P, 39P, 40P, 41P, 42P, 43P, 44P, 45P, 46P