Сулфур

16
S
Група
16
Периода
3
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
16
16
16
Општи Својства
Атомски број
16
Атомска тежина
32,065
Mass Number
32
Category
Неметали
Color
Yellow
Radioactive
Не
Known to the ancients; referred to in Genesis as brimstone
Кристална структура
Face Centered Orthorhombic
History
By the 3rd century, the Chinese discovered that sulfur could be extracted from pyrite.

Indian alchemists wrote extensively about the use of sulfur in alchemical operations with mercury, from the eighth century AD onwards.

In 1777, Antoine Lavoisier helped convince the scientific community that sulfur was an element, not a compound.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 6
Електронска конфигурација
[Ne] 3s2 3p4
S
Penicillin is a natural, sulfur-based antibiotic
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
2,067 g/cm3
Точка на топење
388,36 K | 115,21 °C | 239,38 °F
Точка на вриење
717,8 K | 444,65 °C | 832,37 °F
Топлина на топење
1,73 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
9,8 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,71 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,042%
Abundance in Universe
0,05%
A
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Ben Mills)
A sample of sulfur
CAS Number
7704-34-9
PubChem CID Number
5362487
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
88 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
105 pm
Електронегативност
2,58 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
10,36 eV
Atomic Volume
15,5 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,00269 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-2, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Applications
Sulfur's main commercial use is as a reactant in the production of sulfuric acid.

Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide.

It is used to make sulfite paper and other papers, to fumigate fumigant, and to bleach dried fruits.

It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers.
Elemental sulfur is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
32S, 33S, 34S, 36S
Unstable Isotopes
26S, 27S, 28S, 29S, 30S, 31S, 35S, 37S, 38S, 39S, 40S, 41S, 42S, 43S, 44S, 45S, 46S, 47S, 48S, 49S