Калиум

19
K
Група
1
Периода
4
блок
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
19
19
20
Општи Својства
Атомски број
19
Атомска тежина
39,0983
Mass Number
39
Category
Алкален метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the English word, potash - pot ashes; Latin kalium, Arab qali, alkali
Кристална структура
Body Centered Cubic
History
Potassium's symbol K comes from 'kalium' the name of the element in Germany and Scandinavia.

Potassium metal was first isolated in 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile.

Potassium was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 8, 1
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 4s1
K
People whose diets are low in potassium can suffer from hypokalemia
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
0,862 g/cm3
Точка на топење
336,53 K | 63,38 °C | 146,08 °F
Точка на вриење
1032,15 K | 759 °C | 1398,2 °F
Топлина на топење
2,33 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
76,9 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,757 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
1,5%
Abundance in Universe
0,0003%
Potassium
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Potassium pearls under paraffin oil
CAS Number
7440-09-7
PubChem CID Number
5462222
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
227 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
203 pm
Електронегативност
0,82 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
4,3407 eV
Atomic Volume
45,46 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
1,024 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1
Applications
The greatest demand for potash has been in its use for fertilizers.

Potassium is an essential constituent for plant growth and is found in most soils.

Potassium nitrate is the main explosive ingredient in gunpowder.

Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of soft soaps and as an electrolyte in alkaline batteries.
Potassium must be handled with great care with full skin and eye protection
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
39K, 41K
Unstable Isotopes
32K, 33K, 34K, 35K, 36K, 37K, 38K, 40K, 42K, 43K, 44K, 45K, 46K, 47K, 48K, 49K, 50K, 51K, 52K, 53K, 54K, 55K