Ванадиум

23
V
Група
5
Периода
4
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
23
23
28
Општи Својства
Атомски број
23
Атомска тежина
50,9415
Mass Number
51
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
Named after Scandinavian goddess, Vanadis
Кристална структура
Body Centered Cubic
History
Vanadium was originally discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in 1801.

In 1805, the French chemist Hippolyte Victor Collet-Descotils incorrectly declared that del Río's new element was only an impure sample of chromium.

In 1831, the Swedish chemist Nils Gabriel Sefström rediscovered the element in a new oxide he found while working with iron ores.

Later that same year, Friedrich Wöhler confirmed del Río's earlier work.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 11, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 3d3 4s2
V
Vanadium is mined mostly in South Africa, north-western China, and eastern Russia
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
6,11 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2183,15 K | 1910 °C | 3470 °F
Точка на вриење
3680,15 K | 3407 °C | 6164,6 °F
Топлина на топење
22,8 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
453 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,489 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,019%
Abundance in Universe
0,0001%
Vanadium
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Vanadium crystals made by electrolysis
CAS Number
7440-62-2
PubChem CID Number
23990
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
134 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
153 pm
Електронегативност
1,63 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,8281 eV
Atomic Volume
8,78 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,307 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Vanadium is used as an additive in steel to strengthen and protect against corrosion.

Titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy is used in jet engines and for high-speed aircraft.

Vanadium foil is used in cladding titanium to steel.

Vanadium pentoxide is used in ceramics and as a catalyst for the production of sulfuric acid.
All vanadium compounds should be considered toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
51V
Unstable Isotopes
40V, 41V, 42V, 43V, 44V, 45V, 46V, 47V, 48V, 49V, 50V, 52V, 53V, 54V, 55V, 56V, 57V, 58V, 59V, 60V, 61V, 62V, 63V, 64V, 65V