Литиум

3
Li
Група
1
Периода
2
блок
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
3
3
4
Општи Својства
Атомски број
3
Атомска тежина
6,941
Mass Number
7
Category
Алкален метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek word lithos, stone
Кристална структура
Body Centered Cubic
History
Lithium was discovered by Johann Arfvedson in 1817 when he was analyzing minerals from the island of Uto in Sweden.

The pure metal was isolated the following year by both Swedish chemist William Thomas Brande and English chemist Sir Humphry Davy working independently.

In 1855, larger quantities of lithium were produced through the electrolysis of lithium chloride by Robert Bunsen and Augustus Matthiessen.
Electrons per shell
2, 1
Електронска конфигурација
[He] 2s1
Li
Lithium is the only metal which reacts with nitrogen under normal conditions
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
0,534 g/cm3
Точка на топење
453,69 K | 180,54 °C | 356,97 °F
Точка на вриење
1615,15 K | 1342 °C | 2447,6 °F
Топлина на топење
3 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
147 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
3,582 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0017%
Abundance in Universe
6×10-7%
0.5
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
0.5 grams lithium under argon
CAS Number
7439-93-2
PubChem CID Number
3028194
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
152 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
128 pm
Електронегативност
0,98 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
5,3917 eV
Atomic Volume
13,10 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,847 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1
Applications
Pure lithium metal is used in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Lithium stearate is used as an all-purpose and high-temperature lubricant.

Lithium is used in special glasses and ceramics.

Metallic lithium and its complex hydrides are used as high energy additives to rocket propellants.
Lithium is corrosive and requires special handling to avoid skin contact
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
6Li, 7Li
Unstable Isotopes
4Li, 5Li, 8Li, 9Li, 10Li, 11Li, 12Li