Берилиум

4
Be
Група
2
Периода
2
блок
s
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
4
4
5
Општи Својства
Атомски број
4
Атомска тежина
9,012182
Mass Number
9
Category
Земноалкален метал
Color
Slate Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the Greek word beryllos, beryl
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin discovered beryllium in the oxide form in both beryl and emeralds in 1798.

Friedrich Wöhler and Antoine Bussy independently isolated beryllium in 1828 by the chemical reaction of metallic potassium with beryllium chloride.

The first commercially-successful process for producing beryllium was developed in 1932 by Alfred Stock and Hans Goldschmidt.
Electrons per shell
2, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[He] 2s2
Be
Emerald is a naturally occurring compound of beryllium
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
1,85 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1560,15 K | 1287 °C | 2348,6 °F
Точка на вриење
2742,15 K | 2469 °C | 4476,2 °F
Топлина на топење
7,95 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
297 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
1,825 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-7%
Pure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Pure beryllium bead, 2.5 grams
CAS Number
7440-41-7
PubChem CID Number
5460467
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
112 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
96 pm
Електронегативност
1,57 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
9,3227 eV
Atomic Volume
4,9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
2,01 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2
Applications
Beryllium is used in nuclear reactors as a reflector or moderator.

Beryllium metal is used for lightweight structural components in the defense and aerospace industries in high-speed aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles and satellites.

Unlike most metals, beryllium is virtually transparent to x-rays and hence it is used in radiation windows for x-ray tubes.
Beryllium and its salts are toxic and should be handled with the greatest of care
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
9Be
Unstable Isotopes
5Be, 6Be, 7Be, 8Be, 10Be, 11Be, 12Be, 13Be, 14Be, 15Be, 16Be