Галиум

31
Ga
Група
13
Периода
4
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
31
31
39
Општи Својства
Атомски број
31
Атомска тежина
69,723
Mass Number
70
Category
Слаб метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word Gallia, France; also from Latin, gallus, a translation of Lecoq, a cock
Кристална структура
Base Centered Orthorhombic
History
In 1871, existence of gallium was first predicted by Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev and called the element eka-aluminum.

Gallium was discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 by its characteristic spectrum in an examination of a sphalerite sample.

Later that year, Lecoq obtained the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide in potassium hydroxide solution.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 3
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Ga
Gallium has a strong tendency to supercool below its melting point / freezing point
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
5,907 g/cm3
Точка на топење
302,91 K | 29,76 °C | 85,57 °F
Точка на вриење
2477,15 K | 2204 °C | 3999,2 °F
Топлина на топење
5,59 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
256 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,371 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0019%
Abundance in Universe
1×10-6%
Crystals
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Foobar)
Crystals of gallium
CAS Number
7440-55-3
PubChem CID Number
5360835
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
135 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
122 pm
Електронегативност
1,81 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
5,9993 eV
Atomic Volume
11,8 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,406 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gallium wets glass or porcelain and forms a brilliant mirror when it is painted on glass.

It is widely used in doping semiconductors and producing solid-state devices such as transistors.

Low melting gallium alloys are used in some medical thermometers as non-toxic substitutes for mercury.

Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light.
Gallium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
69Ga, 71Ga
Unstable Isotopes
56Ga, 57Ga, 58Ga, 59Ga, 60Ga, 61Ga, 62Ga, 63Ga, 64Ga, 65Ga, 66Ga, 67Ga, 68Ga, 70Ga, 72Ga, 73Ga, 74Ga, 75Ga, 76Ga, 77Ga, 78Ga, 79Ga, 80Ga, 81Ga, 82Ga, 83Ga, 84Ga, 85Ga, 86Ga