Германиум

32
Ge
Група
14
Периода
4
блок
p
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
32
32
41
Општи Својства
Атомски број
32
Атомска тежина
72,63
Mass Number
73
Category
Металоид
Color
Gray
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word Germania, Germany
Кристална структура
Face Centered Cubic
History
In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties based on its position on his periodic table and called the element eka-silicon.

In 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite.

The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Ge
Germanium and the oxide are transparent to infrared radiation
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
5,323 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1211,4 K | 938,25 °C | 1720,85 °F
Точка на вриење
3106,15 K | 2833 °C | 5131,4 °F
Топлина на топење
31,8 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
334 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,32 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00014%
Abundance in Universe
0,00002%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure chunk of polycrystalline germanium
CAS Number
7440-56-4
PubChem CID Number
6326954
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
122 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
122 pm
Електронегативност
2,01 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
7,8994 eV
Atomic Volume
13,6 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,599 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-4, 1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
The most common use of germanium is as a semiconductor in electronics.

Germanium is used in transistors and in integrated circuits.

It is used as an alloying agent and as a catalyst.

It is also used in infrared spectroscopes and infrared detectors.
Germanium is not known to be toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge
Unstable Isotopes
58Ge, 59Ge, 60Ge, 61Ge, 62Ge, 63Ge, 64Ge, 65Ge, 66Ge, 67Ge, 68Ge, 69Ge, 71Ge, 75Ge, 76Ge, 77Ge, 78Ge, 79Ge, 80Ge, 81Ge, 82Ge, 83Ge, 84Ge, 85Ge, 86Ge, 87Ge, 88Ge, 89Ge