Ниобиум

41
Nb
Група
5
Периода
5
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
41
41
52
Општи Својства
Атомски број
41
Атомска тежина
92,90638
Mass Number
93
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Gray
Radioactive
Не
Named after Niobe, the daughter of Tantalu
Кристална структура
Body Centered Cubic
History
Niobium was discovered by the English chemist Charles Hatchett in 1801 and named the new element columbium.

In 1846, German chemist Henrich Rose independently discovered the element and named it niobium.

The metal was first isolated by Swedish scientist Christian Wilhelm Blomstrand in 1864 who reduced the chloride by heating it in a hydrogen atmosphere.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 4d4 5s1
Nb
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
8,57 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2750,15 K | 2477 °C | 4490,6 °F
Точка на вриење
5017,15 K | 4744 °C | 8571,2 °F
Топлина на топење
26,8 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
690 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,265 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0017%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure niobium bead, slightly oxidized
CAS Number
7440-03-1
PubChem CID Number
23936
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
146 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
164 pm
Електронегативност
1,6 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,7589 eV
Atomic Volume
10,87 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,537 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
-1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Applications
Niobium is used in arc-welding rods for stabilized grades of stainless steel.

Niobium alloys are strong and are often used in pipeline construction.

The metal is used in superalloys for jet engines and heat resistant equipment.

Niobium is found in many medical devices such as pacemakers.
Some niobium compounds are highly toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
93Nb
Unstable Isotopes
81Nb, 82Nb, 83Nb, 84Nb, 85Nb, 86Nb, 87Nb, 88Nb, 89Nb, 90Nb, 91Nb, 92Nb, 94Nb, 95Nb, 96Nb, 97Nb, 98Nb, 99Nb, 100Nb, 101Nb, 102Nb, 103Nb, 104Nb, 105Nb, 106Nb, 107Nb, 108Nb, 109Nb, 110Nb, 111Nb, 112Nb, 113Nb