Циркониум

40
Zr
Група
4
Периода
5
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
40
40
51
Општи Својства
Атомски број
40
Атомска тежина
91,224
Mass Number
91
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Persian zargun, gold like
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Zirconium was first recognized as an element by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789, in Berlin, in a sample of zircon from Sri Lanka.

Zirconium metal was first obtained in an impure form in 1824 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube.

Dutch scientists Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered a method for producing high purity zirconium in 1925.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 10, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Kr] 4d2 5s2
Zr
The most common oxide is zirconium dioxide, also referred to as zirconia
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
6,506 g/cm3
Точка на топење
2128,15 K | 1855 °C | 3371 °F
Точка на вриење
4682,15 K | 4409 °C | 7968,2 °F
Топлина на топење
21 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
580 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,278 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,013%
Abundance in Universe
5×10-6%
Two
Кредити на слика: Wikimedia Commons (Alchemist-hp)
Two samples of crystal bar showing different surface textures as well as a highly pure zirconium cube for comparison
CAS Number
7440-67-7
PubChem CID Number
23995
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
160 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
175 pm
Електронегативност
1,33 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,6339 eV
Atomic Volume
14,0 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,227 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3, 4
Applications
Zirconium is mainly used as a refractory and opacifier, although it is used in small amounts as an alloying agent for its strong resistance to corrosion.

Zirconium is used as to make surgical instruments and is used in steel alloys as a hardening agent.

Zirconium is also used to make superconductive magnets.
Zirconium is considered to be non-toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
90Zr, 91Zr, 92Zr, 94Zr
Unstable Isotopes
78Zr, 79Zr, 80Zr, 81Zr, 82Zr, 83Zr, 84Zr, 85Zr, 86Zr, 87Zr, 88Zr, 89Zr, 93Zr, 95Zr, 96Zr, 97Zr, 98Zr, 99Zr, 100Zr, 101Zr, 102Zr, 103Zr, 104Zr, 105Zr, 106Zr, 107Zr, 108Zr, 109Zr, 110Zr