Гадолиниум

64
Gd
Група
Нема одговор
Периода
6
блок
f
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
64
64
93
Општи Својства
Атомски број
64
Атомска тежина
157,25
Mass Number
157
Category
Ланта­ноид
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From gadolinite, a mineral named for Gadolin, a Finnish chemist
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
Gadolinium was first detected spectroscopically in 1880 by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac who separated its oxide.

He observed spectroscopic lines due to gadolinium in samples of gadolinite and in the separate mineral cerite.

The metal was isolated by Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Gd
Gadolinium has the highest neutron cross-section among any stable nuclides
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
7,895 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1585,15 K | 1312 °C | 2393,6 °F
Точка на вриење
3546,15 K | 3273 °C | 5923,4 °F
Топлина на топење
10 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
305 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,236 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,00052%
Abundance in Universe
2×10-7%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
CAS Number
7440-54-2
PubChem CID Number
23982
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
180 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
196 pm
Електронегативност
1,2 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,1501 eV
Atomic Volume
19,9 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,106 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Gadolinium is used to make gadolinium yttrium garnets which have microwave applications.

It is also used in intravenous radiocontrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gadolinium compounds are used for making green phosphors for color TV tubes, and in manufacturing compact discs.
Gadolinium is considered to be moderately toxic
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd
Unstable Isotopes
134Gd, 135Gd, 136Gd, 137Gd, 138Gd, 139Gd, 140Gd, 141Gd, 142Gd, 143Gd, 144Gd, 145Gd, 146Gd, 147Gd, 148Gd, 149Gd, 150Gd, 151Gd, 152Gd, 153Gd, 159Gd, 161Gd, 162Gd, 163Gd, 164Gd, 165Gd, 166Gd, 167Gd, 168Gd, 169Gd