Скандиум

21
Sc
Група
3
Периода
4
блок
d
Protons
Electrons
Neutrons
21
21
24
Општи Својства
Атомски број
21
Атомска тежина
44,955912
Mass Number
45
Category
Преоден метал
Color
Silver
Radioactive
Не
From the Latin word Scandia, Scandinavia
Кристална структура
Simple Hexagonal
History
In 1879, Lars Fredrik Nilson and his team detected scandium in the minerals euxenite and gadolinite.

Nilson prepared 2 grams of scandium oxide of high purity.

Per Teodor Cleve showed that scandium had properties similar to those predicted by Mendeleev for eka-boron.

Metallic scandium was first prepared in 1937 by Fischer and his colleagues.
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 9, 2
Електронска конфигурација
[Ar] 3d1 4s2
Sc
The stable form of scandium is created in supernovas via the r-process
Физички Својства
Фаза
Solid
Густина
2,989 g/cm3
Точка на топење
1814,15 K | 1541 °C | 2805,8 °F
Точка на вриење
3109,15 K | 2836 °C | 5136,8 °F
Топлина на топење
16 kJ/mol
Топлина на испарување
318 kJ/mol
Specific Heat Capacity
0,568 J/g·K
Abundance in Earth's crust
0,0026%
Abundance in Universe
3×10-6%
Ultrapure
Кредити на слика: Images-of-elements
Ultrapure crystalline scandium
CAS Number
7440-20-2
PubChem CID Number
23952
Атомски Својства
Атомски полупречник
162 pm
Ковалентен полупречник
170 pm
Електронегативност
1,36 (Полингова скала)
Ionization Potential
6,5615 eV
Atomic Volume
15,0 cm3/mol
Thermal Conductivity
0,158 W/cm·K
Oxidation States
1, 2, 3
Applications
Scandium is used in sports equipment such as golf iron shafts, baseball bats, bicycle frames and fishing rods.

Scandium iodide, along with sodium iodide, when added to a modified form of mercury-vapor lamp, produces a form of metal halide lamp.

The radioactive isotope 46Sc is used in oil refineries as a tracing agent.
Scandium is considered to be of low toxicity
Isotopes
Stable Isotopes
45Sc
Unstable Isotopes
36Sc, 37Sc, 38Sc, 39Sc, 40Sc, 41Sc, 42Sc, 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc, 47Sc, 48Sc, 49Sc, 50Sc, 51Sc, 52Sc, 53Sc, 54Sc, 55Sc, 56Sc, 57Sc, 58Sc, 59Sc, 60Sc